"Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is defined by
the progressive airflow obstruction of the peripheral airways
and displays symptoms including lung inflammation, mucus
hypersecretion, and emphysema. According to a 2012 report by the World HealthOrganization, approximately one person dies of COPD every
ten seconds. It is also anticipated to become the world’s third
leading cause of death by 2020. Besides its devastating morbidity rates, COPD places a
substantial burden on the economy. Estimated direct and
indirect costs of COPD in the United States are $29.5 billion
and $20.4 billion, respectively.
Risk levels of COPD are measured by the Global Initiative forChronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) on a numeric
scale: GOLD 1 identifies mild COPD symptoms, GOLD 2
moderate, GOLD 3 severe, and GOLD 4 very severe.
Noxious inhalants such as tobacco smoke and sulfur dioxide
are factors that can prompt COPD development and
progressive damage to the respiratory system . Due to the lack of oxygen and the
subsequent overexertion on the respiratory system, reactiveoxygen species (ROS) formation is constantly triggered. Excessive ROS are
primarily responsible for degradation of intracellular proteins,
rupturing of cellular membranes, intracellular Ca2+ overload,
cellular necrosis, and apoptosis….
This review presents a synopsis of the physiologic and
anatomical changes that occur in patients with COPD as well
as its current and potential therapeutic strategies."